Sampling design and recruitment

Each round associated with the IBBSS utilized respondent sampling that is driven into the concealed nature of MSM and so permits contrast between and across rounds. Respondent sampling that is drivenRDS) happens to be described at length in past studies 22, 23. Briefly, RDS is a modified chain referral sampling that is non-random of recruitment that adjusts for the non-randomness utilizing a mathematical model that loads each sample recruited 23. Inclusion criteria ended up being male aged 16 years and above with a brief history of dental and/or anal intimate experience of another guy into the six months ahead of the study russian bride. Known MSM, designated as “seeds” began the chain for the recommendation community and make use of vouchers to recruit their peers in to the study. Ten seeds had been selected for every circular and seeds had been diversified by age, academic status and socioeconomic status. To prevent an over-representation of MSM with similar characteristics, vouchers limited by three per recruit was utilized 23, 24. In addition, to prevent perform enrollment, only 1 screener had been utilized, just one individual was authorized to reimburse MSM that has effectively recruited his peers and just one location had been utilized. Each voucher had been redeemable and yielded N500 approx. $3 USD as a motivation for participating, with an extra N500 directed at a recruit for every effective extra participant. Total settlement ended up being restricted to a maximum compensation of n2000 approximately $12 USD. Sample size for the 2007 IBBSS had been projected considering an thought HIV prevalence of 15%, a design effectation of 2.0 and degree of accuracy of 0.05. When it comes to 2010 and 2014 IBBSS, sample size was approximated to identify a 10% differ from the round that is subsequent.

Data collection

Structured close-ended interviewer administered questionnaires elicited information on socio-demographic traits, style of intercourse lovers and sexual danger actions. Interviews had been conducted in MSM organizations that are friendly in each one of the research states. Transactional sex had been examined both with feminine and partners that are male. Sort of rectal intercourse practiced was classified as “insertive penile intercourse” or penile that is“receptive” in past times a few months. HIV danger perception ended up being evaluated by asking MSM you are at risk of infection with HIV? ” with response options being “yes or no”“do you feel. Consistent condom use with intimate partners during transactional and non-transactional sex ended up being evaluated by asking the concerns “how frequently did you or your male partner work with a condom each time you had intercourse within the last few 6 months? ” while condom usage at final intercourse ended up being examined by the question “the last time you’d rectal intercourse did you or your partner make use of condom? ”. Transactional sex ended up being examined by asking “have you received gift or money in return for intercourse within the last few six months? ” Written consent had been acquired from all individuals for both behavioural and biological aspects of the study.

Laboratory testing

Detection of HIV during all of the studies ended up being regularly done by fast test utilizing whole bloodstream samples acquired from the hand prick. On the basis of the HIV that is national testing, a synchronous algorithm of Determine (Alere healthcare, United States Of America) and Unigold (Trinity Biotech, Plc, Bray, Ireland) ended up being utilized to determine HIV sero-positivity while status of discordant tests had been verified by using Stat Pak (Chembio Diagnostic techniques, ny, United States Of America).

Information administration and analysis

Data from each research state had been entered CS that is centrally using Pro 3.2 and 25% of questionnaires underwent double-data entry to make sure information quality. Behavioural and biological information had been connected by study identification that is unique for every single participant. Information from each round had been merged and analyzed STATA that is using 14.0 Corporation). Descriptive statistics of demographic, behavioural, and variables that are biological conducted. The Cochran-Armitage Chi Square trend test ended up being utilized to compare differences when considering categorical variables across various rounds of IBBSS, even though the Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to compare variations in constant factors across various rounds of IBBSS. To determine associations between HIV and predictor factors (Tables), bivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted with p value ?0•2 designated as the cutoff for addition in multivariate logistic regression models. Factors were retained should they attained a p value ?0•05 within the multivariate analysis. The predictor factors had been centered on information from literary works that showed a connection amongst the factors and HIV.


Table 1 highlights the sociodemographic information of MSM throughout the three rounds associated with IBBSS. A complete of 897, 1545 and 3611 MSM had been surveyed in 2007, 2010 and 2014 correspondingly. A number of the participants had been aged 20–24 years in 2007 (61%) and 2014 (46%), whilst in 2010, almost half (47%) associated with participants had been 25 years or older. Over 85% associated with participants had never ever hitched in each round for the study. Greater part of the participants had finished at the very least level that is secondary, and also this had been greatest among participants in 2007 with 63per cent accompanied by participants in 2014 (55%).

Intimate danger Behaviours

The median quantity of insertive anal lovers ended up being constant between 2007 and 2010 with about 50% associated with the participants insertive that is reporting sex (IAS) with at the least two lovers interquartile range (IQR 1–4) within the last six months. For receptive anal sex (RAS), a median of two partners that are sexual reported in 2007 whilst it had been one partner both in 2010 and 2014. Overall, about a 3rd had engaged in transactional sex in 2007 (95% confidence period (CI): 30–36%) and 2014 (32–35%), although it had been about two-fifths this season (36–41%). Consistent condom use, whenever intercourse ended up being sold increased steadily from 35% (27–44%) to 79% (74–83%) between 2007 and 2014. Likewise, constant condom used in the last half a year ahead of the study during compensated intimate encounters increased from 35% (30–41%) in 2007 to 61per cent (58–64%) in 2014. For non-commercial lovers, constant condom usage increased from 32per cent (29–36%) in 2007 to 51per cent (49–53%) in 2014. For self-reported experiences of sexually infection that is transmitted, there is a growth from 7% (5–9%) in 2007 to 15per cent (13–17%) this season and 19% (17–20%) in 2014.

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